5130830-2337834Bioweapons and Epidemiology
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
5130830-212489Executive Summary
The oldest mass destruction weapons utilized by man are biological
weapons (Goniewicz et al., 2020).
Worldwide terrorism tends to be a fast developing threat to global security
and intensifies bioterrorism risk (Green et al., 2019).
Bioweapons ailment outbreaks can result in the extermination of rare
0215904wildlife species.
Traditional human livelihoods could also be destroyed.
Genetic miscellany in domesticated animals and plants could also undergo
erosion thus; a course of action is required.
3733800-60089Threat Analysis
Bioweapons tend to be infectious agents like virus or bacteria intentionally utilized in inflicting bodily damage to animals, people and environment.
Bioweapons could be used to cause:
huge fatalities
economic losses
social disruption
environmental issues.
They are used a means of terrorism and warfare
0-166617Bioweapons are hard to control after release as they are infectious agents spreading wildly past the intended region.
5130830-669690Anthrax Etiology04062726
Anthrax tends to be a severe illness whose cause is Bacillus anthracis.
Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive and rod-shaped bacteria.
A high number of human anthrax cases result from contact with infected animals, hides or meat.
The disease tends to naturally occur in domestic and wild animals like sheep and goats.
The animals can be infected after breathing or ingesting spores from polluted plants, soil, and water.
3200400-60089Identification and Lab Analysis
Anthrax diagnosis is done through culturing Bacillus anthracis from skin lesions,
blood and respiratory excretions.
It can also be done by measuring precise antibodies in the blood of persons with
suspected infection.
Anthrax bacteria tend to have several unique physical features that scientists
utilize in distinguishing them from other bacteria types using a microscope.
0134625For instance, anthrax has a small rod shape and are non-motile.
In patients being diagnosed for anthrax, laboratory testing plays the biggest role.
5130830-669690Disease Process: Reservoir04062726
Anthrax tends to be a zoonotic illness.
This means that it is transmitted from animals to people.
Reservoirs tend to be grass-eating animals, fomites, or soils
polluted with spores.
The spores could live in the setting for years.
Typically, livestock and wildlife herbivorous animals tend to
split blood at death or shed the bacilli in terminal hemorrhages.
2286000-60089Disease Process: Transmission Mode
Most infected people tend to be exposed through working with infected animals.
Also, contact with animal products like hair, wool, and hides can cause the disease.
In case of inhalation of spores present in the air, one can get inhalation anthrax.
This can happen during the industrial procedure of contaminated products like
0564561Drinking water or eating food contaminated with spores can also lead to infection.
5130830-669690Disease Process: Incubation Period04062726
For cutaneous anthrax, the incubation period tends to be 1 day.
In pulmonary anthrax cases, the incubation period is 1-7 days.
For pulmonary anthrax, the incubation period could also go up to
60 days.
This is normally associated with the late activation of inhaled
In the gastrointestinal type, incubation is typically 3-7 days.
5130830-669690Threat Level: Occurrence04062726
Signs and symptoms tend to differ depending on the type of anthrax.
Some of the signs include fatigue, chest pain, and breathing
difficulty, fever, headache, skin ulcer, and profuse sweating.
The initial deliberate use of anthrax as a weapon was in early the
This was during the first world war.
It has been proved that the German army utilized anthrax to infect
livestock and animal feed that neutral partners traded to Allied
5130830-669690Threat Level: Susceptibility
People with specific professions like farmers, veterinarians, and livestock
manufacturers could be more susceptible to the disease.
People who often handle animals and their products are also at great risk.
0220305Laboratory specialists who handle anthrax can also be highly infected and
also the mail handlers.
A recognized instance of non-animal transmission was a bioterrorism attack
that took place in the United States, the year 2001.
22 people got anthrax infection from exposure to spores sent via the mail,
and 5 of the infected died.
3124200-87053Threat Level: Communicability Period
It is extremely rare for th

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