Terminology Definitions
Genetic engineering- is any process that adds new DNA or genetic trait to an organism.
DNA- Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions in all organisms.
Biosafety- efforts to reduce and eliminate eliminate potential risks resulting from biotechnology and its products on plant, animal, or human health; genetic resources; or the environment.
Cloning- a process of creating many exact copies of a DNA or a gene
Quantitative Trait Locus (QTLs) – are stretches of DNA containing or linked to the genes that underlie a quantitative trait
DNA Marker alleles- DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species
Vector- It is an engine that carries a DNA fragment into a host cell where it can replicate and multiply
Selectable marker- s a reporter gene introduced into a cell along with a gene insert to identify those cell that have taken the foreign DNA during transfection process.
Recombinant DNA technology- The process of constructing and manipulating DNA sequences that do not occur naturally by combining DNA fragments from different sources.
Plasmid- is a small DNA molecule that is physically separate from, and can replicate independently of, chromosomal DNA within a cell.
Living Modified Organisms- is defined in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety as any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.
Promoter- DNA sequences that define where transcription of a gene by RNA polymerase begins. Promoter sequences are located directly upstream or at the 5′ end of the transcription initiation site. RNA polymerase and the necessary transcription factors bind to the promoter sequence and initiate transcription.
Ivitro- Are experiments performed with cells or biological molecules outside their normal biological context
Genetic transformation- is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material (exogenous DNA) from its surroundings and taken up through the cell membrane(s). Transformation occurs naturally in some species of bacteria, but it can also be effected by artificial means in other cells.
Gene pool- is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species
Bioethics- The investigation and a study of ways in which decision in medicine and science touch upon our health and lives, society and environment.

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