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Title?In Chinese?
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THE FORECAST MODEL OF DEBRIS FLOWS ALONG CHINA-PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR ROUTE AT NORTHERN PAKISTAN (MASTER THESIS)
A Dissertation?Thesis?Submitted to
Southeast University
For the Academic(or Professional) Degree of Doctor (or Master) of
Engineering(or Science etc)
BY
Name of Graduate
Supervised by
Name of Supervisor and Title (such as Prof. FENG Chang-gen)
and
Name of Second Supervisor and Title
School of Electronic Science and Engineering
Southeast University
Date of Submit
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There should be about 500 Chinese characters in abstract in Chinese. The preferred font is ?? (simsun), in font size 12. The line spacing must be single.
???: keywords in Chinese
Abstract
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Keywords:
Contents TOC o “1-3” h z u ?? PAGEREF _Toc8945091 h IAbstract PAGEREF _Toc8945092 h IICHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc8945093 h 1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc8945094 h 1Statement of the Problem and Purpose of the Study PAGEREF _Toc8945095 h 2Aims and Objectives of the Study PAGEREF _Toc8945096 h 3Population and climate PAGEREF _Toc8945097 h 3CPEC Geographical and geology PAGEREF _Toc8945098 h 4LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc8945099 h 52.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc8945100 h 52.2Soil analysis PAGEREF _Toc8945101 h 52.3Difference in soil types PAGEREF _Toc8945102 h 72.4Soil classes and effect on debris PAGEREF _Toc8945103 h 82.5Landslides and debris flow PAGEREF _Toc8945104 h 102.6 Geographical, lithology and topography analysis PAGEREF _Toc8945105 h 12Chapter 3: Research and methodology PAGEREF _Toc8945106 h 143.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc8945107 h 143.2Weighted information model PAGEREF _Toc8945108 h 143.3 Law of Evidence PAGEREF _Toc8945109 h 153.4 Elevation and direct sheer test PAGEREF _Toc8945110 h 17CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION PAGEREF _Toc8945111 h 194.1 introduction PAGEREF _Toc8945112 h 194.2Geological hazard sensitivity analysis PAGEREF _Toc8945113 h 194.3Soil distribution PAGEREF _Toc8945114 h 194.4Debris geographical zoning PAGEREF _Toc8945115 h 20Chapter 5 Conclusion and recommendation PAGEREF _Toc8945116 h 225.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc8945117 h 225.2 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc8945118 h 225.3 Recommendation and future research PAGEREF _Toc8945119 h 23References PAGEREF _Toc8945120 h 24List of Figure PAGEREF _Toc8945121 h 25Author Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc8945122 h 26
TOC h z c “Figure” CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Introduction
Debris can be defined as mixture of many sediments that are full of water moving down a slope under the pull of gravity and are mainly caused by heavy rainfall or melting of snow especially in the sloppy areas. Debris causes damages and destruction and this has been possible especially in areas where there is less topography and there is high velocity due to the less vegetation. They present large risks to those living in mountainous areas, as well as downstream from volcanoes in the case of the flows known as lahars that may travel 100?200 kilometers (62-124 miles) (Kevin et al). Debris flows occur when masses of poorly sorted sediment, agitated and saturated with water, surge down slopes in response to gravitational attraction. Both solid and fluid forces vitally influence the motion, distinguishing debris flows from related phenomena such as rock avalanches and sediment-laden water floods. Whereas solid grain forces dominate the physics of avalanches, and fluid forces dominate the physics of floods, solid and fluid forces must act in concert to produce a debris flow. Other criteria for defining debris flows emphasize sediment concentrations, grain size distributions, flow front speeds, shear strengths, and shear rates, but the necessity of interacting solid and fluid forces makes a broader, more mechanistic distinction (Beverage, and J. K. Culbertson, 1964).By this rationale, many events identified as debris slides, debris torrents, debris floods, mudflows, mudslides, mud spates, hyper concentrated flows, and lahars may be regarded as debris flows.
Interaction of solid and fluid forces not only distinguishes debris flows physically but also gives them unique destructive power. Like avalanches of solids, debris flows can occur with little warning because of slope failure in continental and seafloor environments, and they can exert great impulsive loads on objects they encounter (Pierson, and Costa, 1987). CPEC is a revolution in the field of economics. Under CPEC, China would invest $46 billion in Pakistan for the development of infrastructure and energy. CPEC is a futuristic economic dimension of Pakistan in the 21st century. This multi-dimensional project has opened Pakistan?s rebalancing options from geopolitics to geo-economics. It includes four pillars i.e. the infrastructure, the energy requirements, workforce development and economic progress. CPEC project is not an economic aid given to Pakistan but it is an investment for the next 15 years. This period is important for Pakistan as it is the duration in which Pakistan by utilizing all of its resources and labor could bring Pakistan into global economic mainstream (Pierson, and Costa, 1987). It has been said that if CPEC utilized properly would rebound the economy of Pakistan three to four times.

  
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