- Elliot Cohen, “Health Care Ethics,” and “Ethical Theory and Mental Health Practice,” pp. 17-35.
- John Stuart Mill, “Utilitarianism,” pp. 35-43.
- Immanuel Kant, “The Categorical Imperative,” pp. 43-49.
Please answer the following 10 questions, and submit this whole document with your answers. Whenever possible, please use your own sentences in your answers. Try not to use quotes. In this assignment, we will look at two moral theories. In the next assignment, we will look at cases in which to apply the theories.
Question 1: According to Cohen, on page 21, what is ethical theory?
Question 2: According to Cohen, on page 17, explain the two distinct ways in which we might study morality.
Question 3: On page 18, what are the three divisions of ethical theories, and what are examples of each of these kinds of theories?
Question 4: After reading Cohen’s and Mill’s explanations of utilitarianism, what makes an action morally right on the classical view of utilitarianism? Explain utilitarianism. (See pages 18, 22, and 36.)
Question 5: Explain the difference between act and rule utilitarianism. (see pages 18 and 22-24.)
Question 6: From pages 24 and 25, choose one objection to utilitarianism, explain the objection, and then explain the reply that utilitarians can give to the objection.
Question 7: Explain Kant’s theory of morality. (See pages 19-20, 25-29, and Kant’s paper.) Also state the “categorical imperative” (p. 26) and explain what it means.
Question 8: According to Kant’s theory, an action is morally acceptable if it passes the categorical imperative test. According to this test, if your action is morally permissible, the motive (or maxim) of your action has to be universalizable; it must be able to become a universal law. Kant tries to explain what this means with 4 different examples. See pages 44-45. Please read those 4 cases. Choose two of them to discuss. Explain each case and what Kant says is the motive (or maxim) in each of the two cases. Then explain what Kant concludes about the action in each of the two examples.
Question 9: What do you think of Kant’s conclusions in the two cases you discussed? Do you agree with Kant’s conclusion in each of the two cases or not? Explain why or why not.
Question 10: What do you think of utilitarianism and Kant’s theory? Do you think one is better than the other? Do you think that either theory can be any good?
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