Use the material from Chapters 22 & 23 of Shillington (4th Edition) to answer the following question. With respect to the “scramble for Africa” indicate the following:

(a) Whatwerethepretexts(arguments)offeredbyEuropeansfortheirdesiretocolonizeAfrica;

(b) What gave them the decisive advantage in doing so only in the late 19th century and not earlier;

(c) UsetheBritishexperienceinWestAfrica,ThePortugueseexperienceinMozambiqueandthe German experience in Namibia to illustrate the realities (for both Africans and Europeans) of that “scramble.”

Based on Chapter 9 of Clayton, Conniff & Gauss (3rd Edition), answer the following questions.
(a) Indicate the role of the following factors in the experiences of Peru and Bolivia in the later half

of the 19th century:

Raw material exports;

Territorial disputes;

Racial conflict.
(b) Indicate the role of the following factors in the experience of Argentina in the latter half of the

19th century:

Internal imperialism;


Raw material exports.

Answer any three (3) of the following (five) questions.
These questions are based on the lectures and the assigned (starred) readings (from the textbook and O’Brian and Williams).

Both the nature and importance of banking varied between the early industrializing countries of Western Europe during the 19th century. For Great Britain and Germany compare and contrast:

The nature of their banking systems; and

The role of banking in industrialization.

Compare the nature, timing and rate of industrialization of Belgium and Switzerland in the 19th century; making sure to identify both the challenges and advantages faced by these countries.

In class Lecture 3.2 we demonstrated that the determination of early industrialization (after Britain) was related to the following parameters:

Institutional preparedness;

Speed of technology transfer;

Quality of human capital;

Level of per capita income.

Using material from Chapters 9-12 of the textbook (Neal & Cameron), show how these parameters can be used to explain the failure of Southern Eastern Europe and Russia to industrialize in the 19th century.

Using examples, explain the critical role played by the following two factors in the industrialization of the Scandinavian countries:

• Upstream industrialization; • Electricity.

5. Indicate, and describe, three of the arguments presented for imperialism (in your required readings) and, for each, explain why they do not provide a complete (or irrefutable) explanation of modern (or capitalist) imperialism in the 19th century.

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