LENGTH: 2,000 words, +/- 10% (please include a word count with your essay)

The essay will be marked according to the following criteria:
• Has a clear and consistent argument that answers the question
• Shows control of the essay form, including the introduction, conclusion, and use of
• Constructs an argument based on the ancient sources
• Engages critically with the ancient sources and modern scholarship
• Writes in a distinctive voice, showing originality of thought and flair
• Writes in clear and correct English
• Cites evidence correctly

It is expected that essays will focus on the ancient sources from the relevant module(s) for each
question. Students are required to consider at minimum SIX (6) ancient sources in their essays.
(Each individual text in WLGR counts as one ancient source.) In addition to the ancient sources,
students are expected to read and make use of at least THREE (3) works of modern scholarship in
answering their chosen question. Students may also wish to look at some of the easily available items listed below. Students are welcome to do their ownresearch, provided they understand that not all scholarship is created equal, and that general online
encyclopaedic sites, such as Wikipedia or Britannica Online, will not be considered acceptable
examples of modern scholarship. Students are welcome to cite ancient sources not set for the
modules (such as other readings in WLGR) but this is by no means necessary.

Please answer ONE (1) of the following questions:
1. To what extent were men and women equally constrained by society and expected gender
roles in the ancient world? In your answer, please focus on either Classical Greece or Rome.
2. What were the opportunities for independent action for women in either Classical Greece or
3. What can funerary inscriptions (epitaphs) tell us about men, women, and the relationships
between the sexes in the ancient world?
4. What were the consequences (civic, social, or otherwise) for failing to adhere to expected
gender roles in either Classical Greece or Rome? In your answer, you may choose to focus on
men, women, or both.
5. A woman in the ancient world who was not a mother was not really a woman. To what extent
is this statement true of either Classical Greece or Rome?

M. Carroll (2006). Spirits of the Dead: Roman Funerary Commemoration in Western Europe.
M. Carroll (2018). Infancy and Earliest Childhood in the Roman World: ‘A Fragment of Time’.
D. Cohen (1991). Law, Sexuality, and Society: The Enforcement of Morals in Classical Athens.
D. Cohen (1992). “Sex, Gender and Sexuality in Ancient Greece.” Classical Philology 87.2:
N. Demand (1994). Birth, Death, and Motherhood in Classical Greece. Baltimore.
S. Dixon (1992). The Roman Family. Baltimore.
S. Dixon (2001). Childhood, Class, and Kin in the Roman World. London & NY.
J. Edmondson (2011). “Slavery and the Roman Family.” In The Cambridge World History of
Slavery. I. The Ancient Mediterranean World. P. Cartledge and K. R. Bradley (eds.).
Ch. 16 (pp. 337-361).
C. Edwards (2002). The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome. Cambridge.
S.R. Hübner and D.M. Ratzan (eds.) (2009). Growing up Fatherless in Antiquity. Cambridge.
R. Langlands (2006). Sexual Morality in Ancient Rome. Cambridge.
L.K. McLure and C.A. Faraone (eds.) (2006). Prostitutes and Courtesans in the Ancient World
J. Roisman (2005). The Rhetoric of Manhood: Masculinity in the Attic Orators. Berkeley.
R. P. Saller and B. D. Shaw (1984). “Tombstones and Roman Family Relations in the
Principate: Civilians, Soldiers, and Slaves.” Journal of Roman Studies 74: 124-156.
B.S. Strauss (1993). Fathers and Sons in Athens: Ideology and Society in the Era of the
Peloponnesian War. London & New York.
S. Treggiari (1991). Roman Marriage: Iusti Coniuges from the time of Cicero to the time of
Ulpian. Oxford.
C.A. Williams (1999). Roman Homosexuality: Ideologies of Masculinity in Classical Antiquity.

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