2. In Chapter 1 of the Serious Cryptography book (page 11), the author describes different black box attack models.
a. Which of the attacks are passive and which are active? Explain why. (20 points)
b. Why is COA the weakest attack? (20 points)
c. CCA allows attackers the ability to encrypt and decrypt. The book gives us the example of video distribution as a scenario where encryption and decryption are required. Explain why encryption and decryption are useful in this scenario. (20 points)
d. Can you think of another scenario where encryption and decryption capabilities, and not just decryption abilities on the part of the attacker are useful? (20 points)

3. In your own words, explain the following concepts in relation to ciphers:
a. Indistinguishability (20 points)
b. Non-malleability (20 points)

4. Explain how the two concepts in question 3 apply or do not apply to the following:
a. Caesar cipher (20 points)
b. Vigenere cipher (20 points)
c. Hashing algorithm (e.g. MD5) (20 points)

5. Explain and provide two examples each for the following:
a. At-rest encryption (30 points)
b. In-transit encryption (30 points)

6. Why is randomness important in cryptography? Give two examples illustrating your solution. (30 points)

7. In the book “Hands-on cryptography with Python”, the authors describes the ROT13 cipher. Answer the following questions for the ROT13 cipher.

a. Explain the ROT13 cipher in your own words. (30 points)
b. In the author’s words, ROT13 works as follows. Provide a screenshot after running the code to verify that the below statement is true. (30 points)
“If you run one cycle of ROT13, it changes HELLO to URYYB, and if you encrypt it again with the same process, putting in that URYYB, it’ll turn back into HELLO.”
c. Where has the ROT13 been used? (10 points)

8. Compare and contrast the Windows password hashing algorithm and the Linux password hashing algorithm demonstrated in the book. (The more detail, the better). (40 points)

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