Choose one (1) set of concepts from Part A and one (1) set of concepts from Part B. Define each concept in the set you choose and provide a relevant example. Discuss how the concepts, in the set, are connected and the possible implications of these connections. Try to limit your answer to 193 words or so. This part of the examination is worth twenty (20) marks.
(a) proletariat, bourgeoisie, exploitation
(b) profane, sacred, social construction
(c) social class, class, life chances
(e) diffuseness, specificity, solidarity
(f) mode, means, instruments of production
(g) function, latent function, dysfunction
(h) mode, means of production, alienation
(i) innovation, retreatism, social progress
Section 2. Choose one (l) of the following, (j) through (l). Define all terms used. Try
to limit your discussion to 742 words. This part of the exam is worth twenty (20)
(j) Briefly outline the forms of social conflict discussed by Vilfredo Pareto and Karl Marx. What similarities and differences do you see in their ideas? (10 marks) How might the ideas, expressed by Pareto and Marx, exist, today, and influence 21st century social life and social relations? (10 marks) Define all terms used. Use examples.
(k) Briefly and with examples, explain logical action and non-logical action as offered by Vilfredo Pareto. (10 marks) Critically apply these concepts to decision making in everyday life. (10 marks) Thoroughly define all terms used.
(l) Identify and explain the main assumptions used by Mosca in the Inevitability of Stratification and his primary conclusion. (8 marks) Do you think his main assumption and primary conclusion are applicable today? Explain why or why not, using three examples to justify your answer and conclusions. (12 marks)
Section 3. Choose one (1) of the following, (m) through (p). Try to limit your answer to 1294 words. The question is worth thirty (30) marks. Note the distribution of marks for each question. Focus your response. Be sure to define and explain all concepts you use; explicitly state any assumptions you make regarding your response. Think! Think!! Think!!! Be thorough. Define all ideas, themes or theories used.
(m) As discussed in class, what are social facts according to Emile Durkheim,? (4 marks) Identify and explain three social facts evident in society, today. (6 marks) What does Durkheim mean when he concludes social facts possess the “power of coercion by reason.” (5 marks) What does Durkheim mean when he concludes each social fact exists “in its own right, independent of [the] individual”? (5 marks) Do you think social facts are important for analysing and understanding society, today? (10 marks)
(n) Comte, Spencer, Marx and Durkheim each discussed social progress. For someone that is intelligent and interested, briefly explain and discuss how Comte, Spencer, Marx and Durkheim thought of social progress. (20 marks) Which of these ways of thinking of social progress you believe to be most effective and why? (10 marks) Be thorough and think! Use examples.
(o) To paraphrase John Scott, in the Oxford Dictionary of Sociology (2009: 15-17), the Marxist notion of alienation refers to the disaffection or distancing of individuals (1) from their humanness, (2) from other humans, (3) from the goods they make or services they perform and (4) from the act of making goods or providing services. Explain and discuss this statement, including active consideration of each form of alienation and using relevant examples (15 marks) Do you believe the Marxist notion of alienation is valid, today? If so, when, where, how and why is it valid, today, and with what effect? If not, why not? Use examples and explain as fully as possible. (15 marks)
(p) Briefly, what is the promise of sociology, according to C W Mills? Do you believe the work of Karl Mark helps fulfill the promise of sociology? If so, how; use examples? If not, why not; use examples? (10 marks) Do you believe the work of David Emile Durkheim helps fulfill the promise of sociology? If so, how; use examples? If not, why not; use examples? (10 marks) Given the in-class discussion of some of the work of Robert King Merton, do you believe he helps fulfill the promise
of sociology? If so, how; use examples? If not, why not; use examples? (10 marks)
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