Based on the case study provided, respond to the following questions:
Identify and differentiate the symptoms from the signs in this patient.
What is the personal and social history of our patient?
What is the family history?
What results do you expect to find in the tests ordered?
What are some complications the patient is suffering now?
In regard to the patient’s mother’s breast cancer:
What are the four mechanisms of cellular adaptation? Explain.
What is the general classification of neoplasms according to their tissue of origin?
How would sickle cell anemia induce ischemia? What are the differences between ischemia and necrosis?
What are the differences between sickle cell anemia and leukemia? Compare their pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, and lab results.
All references must be cited using APA Style format.Name: Mr. Peter Smith

Age: 45 years old

Gender: Male


Mr. Peter Smith came to the medical office complaining of fatigue, asthenia, headaches, and generalized abdominal pain. Our patient tells us that he has had a high fever, but he did not take his temperature. The patient has had previous episodes of abdominal pain and arthralgia. Also, he was diagnosed with sickle cell anemia when he was a child. His father suffers from sickle cell anemia, diabetes mellitus, and essential hypertension. Our patient’s mother had a right radical mastectomy due to breast cancer a few years ago, and she suffers from sickle cell anemia, like Mr. Smith and his father. There is no other remarkable pathologic family history.

Mr. Smith drinks alcohol at least once per month and smoke cigarettes. He has no history of drug addiction. He is allergic to penicillin and iodine.

On physical examination we found:

Remarkable Signs on Physical Exam by Regions

Abdomen: Distended and painful on palpation, mostly on the left upper quadrant. Splenomegaly.
SOMA: Joint pain
Remarkable Signs on Physical Exam by Systems

Integumentary system: Yellowish skin and pale nail beds. Superficial crater-like skin lesion on the right medial ankle area. An erythematous area accompanied by edema, purulent secretion, and heat surrounds the lesion.
Respiratory system: Tachypnea
Cardiovascular system: Tachycardia
Lab Tests

Complete blood count (CBC)
Hemoglobin electrophoresis
Abdominal ultrasound
Supporting Material
In order to understand Mr. Smith’s case, we need to investigate the primary concepts of homeostasis at a cellular level and explore specific conditions when homeostasis is not present. How does our body adapt to environmental toxins? We will explore this question by looking at specific outcomes when there are deviations from homeostasis in three specific areas:

Cellular adaption and neoplasia
Infection, immunity, and inflammation
Hematological disorders

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