Section A

Answer ALL questions.

It is recommended that you take 15 minutes to read and understand the following extract:

The armed conflict in Syria began in 2011. It involves Syrian government forces and their allies, including Russia and Iran. Those involved continue to commit serious violations of international humanitarian law, including war crimes and serious human rights abuses.

Government and allied forces carry out attacks on civilians using aerial bombing, including the use of internationally banned weapons.

Security forces arrest and continue to detain tens of thousands of people, including peaceful activists, humanitarian workers, lawyers and journalists. Many suffer enforced disappearance and torture or other ill-treatment. Many people die in detention.

Syrian government forces fail to provide the families with remains or information around the circumstances of the disappearances.

In 2018, government forces attacked 22 hospitals near the capital, Damascus. According to local humanitarian organisations, civilians including medical workers and patients were killed. In addition, government forces deprived around 250,000 people of access to medical care, other basic goods and services and humanitarian assistance. Doctors and medical workers were unable to provide adequate medical care to those injured, owing to a lack of surgical supplies, medical equipment and medicine. The lack of access to food, humanitarian aid and other life-saving necessities led to a rise in malnutrition.

The Syrian government violates the right to housing. Armed opposition groups with the support of Turkey, confiscate and take property.

The US-led coalition fails to acknowledge or investigate the large number of civilian deaths and large-scale destruction caused by their 2017 bombing campaign on Raqqa against the armed group calling itself Islamic State (IS).

By the end of 2018, the conflict had caused the deaths of more than 400,000 people and displaced more than 11 million people within and outside Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey, the countries hosting most of the refugees, continue to block the entry of new refugees. The number of resettlement places and other safe and legal routes for refugees offered by Western and other states falls far below the needs identified by UNHCR, the UN refugee agency.

Russia continues to block efforts by the UN Security Council to pursue justice and accountability. On 10 April, Russia vetoed a resolution aimed at identifying the perpetrators of a chemical weapon attack near Damascus.

The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons has passed a resolution granting it a mandate to identify perpetrators of chemical weapons attacks.

The Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic, established by the UN Human Rights Council in 2011, monitors and reports on violations of international law committed by those involved in the conflict, although the government of Syria prevents its representatives from entering the country.

Adapted from: africa/syria/report-syria/

Using only the information in the extract above, answer Questions A1-A4.

Question A1

(a)identify one violation of international humanitarian law carried out by the forces involved in the war in Syria.[ 1 ]

(b)identify one country which is hosting refugees from the war in Syria.[ 1 ]


Question A2

Outline two problems facing medical staff working in Syria during the war.[ 4 ]

Question A3

Explain one reason why the war in Syria continues.[ 2 ]

Question A4

Outline two problems facing refugees from Syria.[ 4 ]

Using the information in the extract above and your own knowledge, answer Questions A5-A7.

Question A5

Explain two reasons war is relevant to International Relations.

You may refer to the war in Syria or any other war/conflict which you have studied.

Word Limit: 200 words[ 8 ]

Question A6

Explain ways IR actors may be involved in wars/conflicts.

You may refer to the war in Syria or any other war/conflict which you have studied.

Word Limit: 250 words[10]

Question A7

Discuss the role of ideas and differences which can lead to war.

You may refer to the war in Syria or any other war/conflict which you have studied.

Word Limit: 250 words[10]

Order with us today for a quality custom paper on the above topic or any other topic!

What Awaits you:

• High Quality custom-written papers

• Automatic plagiarism check

• On-time delivery guarantee

• Masters and PhD-level writers

• 100% Privacy and Confidentiality

error: Content is protected !!