Drugs can affect the heart in a number of ways. It is essential that the nurse understand the underlying cardiac pathophysiology in order to understand drug actions.

a. Explain the difference between an inotropic effect and chronotropic effect.

b. Give examples of pharmacologic classes of drugs that affect each.

c. In general, is it more desirable to give a drug with a positive inotropic effect or a positive chronotropic effect when treating chronic heart failure? Explain your answer.

Don’t forget to include correct APA format: in text citations (including page numbers) and a reference/s at the end of your response.

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